How Did The Peace Agreement With France Affect The Federalists

The war in northwestern India, or Little Turtle`s War, resulted from conflicts between the United States and the Western Confederation over the occupation of the northwest territory. In the 1780s and 1790s, British agents in the region continued to sell arms and ammunition to American Indians and to encourage attacks against European American invaders. The intruders returned the favor with such violent attacks on American Indians. In response to this escalation, President Washington and Minister of War Henry Knox ordered General Josiah Harmar to launch a major Western offensive on Shawnee and Miami from October 1790. After initial losses by Colonel Hardin and Major General St Clair, Washington ordered General Anthony Wayne to form a well-trained force and subjugate American forces. After a long training, Wayne`s troops advanced into the area and built the recovery at the site of the defeat of St. Clairs. Wayne`s legion moved deeper into the territory of Wabash Confederacy and defeated the last of the American Indians to brigé in August 1794 in the Battle of the Timber Traps. Although the French Revolution ended its radical phase, federalists in the United States remained cautious about the revolutionary ideology that infiltrated the United States. Many French citizens, refugees from the French and Haitian revolutions, had settled in American cities and remained politically active, set up newspapers and stir up their political concerns. A French spy, Victor Collot, crossed the United States in 1796 and noticed the weaknesses of his western border. While a failure of diplomatic negotiations led to a near-war with France, the Federalist-controlled Congress passed a series of laws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts to stem political differences and limit the political participation of immigrants by facilitating deportation and extending the time needed for citizenship.

A number of political radicals were arrested, including MP Matthew Lyon and newspaper editors James Thompson Callendar and William Duane. Many refugees, who felt the hostility of the United States, decided to return to France and Haiti, as the political situation temporarily calmed down in both places. When Adams sent a three-member delegation to Paris – Charles Pinckney, John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry – to negotiate a peace agreement with France, French agents demanded major concessions from the United States as a precondition for further diplomatic relations. These include asking for 50,000 pounds and a personal bribe of 250,000 pounds from the French Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand. The United States had offered France many of the identical provisions contained in Jay`s contract with Great Britain, but France responded by deporting Marshall and Pinckney – both important federalists – to the United States and rejecting any proposal that would involve these two delegates.

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